Papal Palace, Avignon, Provence
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For much of the 14th century Italy was ravaged by wars, and one consequence of this was also the major event in the history of Avignon, leading to the centre of the Christian world moving to France and the building of the Popes Palace. This Palace is one of the most important monuments in Provence, and is situated in the heart of the historic city.
History of the Popes Palace
From 1309 to 1377 the Popes established the centre of the Catholic church in the town of Avignon, during which time seven different popes were in control of the church. The influence of Avignon continued after this time, when the French cardinals objected to a new Italian Pope chosen in 1378, and established an alternative pope here in Avignon, Pope Clement VII who reigned until 1394 and was then succeeded by Pope Benedict XIII.
These last two popes are referred to as the "Anti-Popes". This major divide in the Catholic church was not resolved until 1403, so for almost all the 14th century Avignon was a major regional centre with a far-reaching influence.
It was early in this period, from 1335-1352, that Pope Benoit XII and Pope Clément VI built the largest gothic style palace and church in the world: it took only 18 years to build most of the enormous Popes Palace, although certain additions continued after this date. The scale of the building continues with the major rooms inside, several of which are enormous!
The main building is built around two courtyards: the Great Courtyard (La Cour d'Honneur) and the Small Courtyard. To the left (looking from in front of the building) is the Old Palace and to the right is the New Palace and the Great Chapel (upstairs) and the Great Audience Hall (downstairs).
Visiting the Popes Palace in Avignon
Enter the Popes Palace through the Porte des Champeaux, the main entrance in the middle of the front facade and below the two turrets (you will learn later during your visit that these turrets are mostly a recent reconstruction, the originals having collapsed).
In the main courtyard you are surrounded by the high walls of the palace buildings: take a look at the lovely stonework in the main arch window that overlooks the courtyard from the Great Chapel. The adjacent Small Courtyard is more welcoming, being much smaller and with grass in the centre.
Inside the buildings, although many of the rooms are rather austere, there is a great deal to enjoy when you visit: in total 25 rooms are open to visitors.
Apart from the rooms themselves with their soaring architecture, you will also see frescoes and wall coverings. In some of the smaller rooms such as the Popes Chamber and the Stag Room (Chambre du Cerf) these tiles and paintings are quite intact. There are also items of furniture, such as the Papal Throne in the Popes Room, although most of these are careful copies rather than the original furnishings. You will also see some of the tombs of the Popes and a grand staircase.
In some of the large rooms there are computer screen simulations to help visitors see how the interior would have been in the 14th century: short answer, much more colourful than it is today!
Major art exhibitions also take place quite regularly in the Popes Palace, which are very well suited to the large spaces available.
The building to the left of the Palais des Papes, surmounted by a golden madonna, is the Cathedral Notre-Dame des Doms. There was a cathedral here from the 12th century, but much of what we see today is a later reconstruction. The madonna was only added in the 19th century.
Another important relic from the time of the Popes stay in France is the ruined castle above the small village of Chateauneuf-du-Pape, a few kilometres to the north of Avignon.
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Address: Avignon, Vaucluse, Provence, 84000, France || GPS: latitude 43.950712, longitude 4.807547
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Sightseeing & tourist attractions to visit nearby
- Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Repos de Montfavet (Avignon): religious monument
- Avignon Centre: heritage site
- Avignon: secteur sauvegarde
- Villeneuve-les-Avignon: secteur sauvegarde
- Fort Saint-Andre: national monument (2km)
- Jardin du château de Brantes: remarkable garden (8km)
- Jardin aquatique « Aux fleurs de l'eau: remarkable garden (11km)
- Glanum: national monument (18km)
- Beaucaire: recommended detour (21km)
- Orange Roman Theatre: heritage site (21km)
- Pernes-les-Fontaines: recommended detour (21km)
- Pont du Gard: grand site of france (22km)